Brown riceThe seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice.
Brown rice processing preserves the nutritional shell, which explains its unusual light-brown color. It is much more useful than white rice, because the lion's share of rice nutrients contained in the grain shell.
Parboiled riceParboiled rice (also called converted rice) is rice that has been partially boiled in the husk. The three basic steps of parboiling are soaking, steaming and drying. These steps also make rice easier to process by hand, boost its nutritional profile and change its texture. About 50% of the world’s paddy production is parboiled.
Parboiling drives nutrients, especially thiamin, from the bran to endosperm, hence parboiled white rice is 80% nutritionally similar to brown rice.
Steaming - a special technology of improving the quality characteristics of rice. Raw rice soaked in water and then treated with hot steam under pressure. After that the grain is dried and polished. As a result of steaming grains of rice become amber-yellow hue and become translucent. Steamed rice has its advantages: in the processing of steam up to 80% of vitamins and minerals contained in the rice shell moved into the grain of rice, and the grains become less brittle. Yellow color of the steamed rice disappears at preparation, and it becomes a snow-white, like polished white rice. However cooking time of the steamed rice is 20-25 minutes due the fact that the grains become harder and slower boiled comparing to conventional rice.
After steam treatment of paddy, the milled rice obtains cooking quality, color and taste as “aged rice”. No need for storing for 10/12 months
White rice (Polished rice) - OR - Raw Rice
The milling (while processing brown rice) may be continued, removing the 'bran', i.e., the rest of the husk and the germ, thereby creating white rice. This is the rice after all the stages of polishing. White rice, which keeps longer, lacks some important nutrients; in a limited diet which does not supplement the rice, brown rice helps to prevent the disease beriberi.Its grains are smooth and flat surface, the characteristic color of white and translucent, but individual grains can be opaque.
It is the main type of rice consumed in the world. White rice may also be buffed with glucose or talc powder (often called polished rice, though this term may also refer to white rice in general)
Raw rice (white rice) consumers prefer “aged” or “seasoned” rice. This is raw rice stored for 10 – 12 months. The cooking quality , color and taste changes with aging
Disadvantages of long storage:
Chances of fungus and insects and rodents
Loss in weight
Large storage space and blocking of capital
Flattened rice (also called beaten rice) is a dehusked rice which is flattened into flat light dry flakes. These flakes of rice swell when added to liquid, whether hot or cold, as they absorb water, milk or any other liquids. The thicknesses of these flakes vary between almost translucently thin (the more expensive varieties) to nearly four times thicker than a normal rice grain.
Davanagere MandakkiIt is usually made by heating rice kernels under high pressure in the presence of steam, though the method of manufacture varies widely.
A traditional puffed rice called muri (sometimes spelled mouri) is made by heating rice in a sand-filled oven. Muri is to rice as popcorn is to corn. Puffed rice is formed by the reaction of both starch and moisture when heated within the shell of the grain.
Another method of puffing rice is "gun puffing", where the grain is conditioned to the correct level of moisture and pressurised to around 200 PSI. When the pressure is suddenly released, the pressure stored inside the kernel causes it to puff out. This method produces a puffed rice which is spongy in texture.